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WARPED
Generally a condition experienced only in flagging or flagstone materials; very common with flagstone materials that are taken from the ground and used in their natural state. To eliminate warping in stones it would be necessary to further finish the material such as machining, sand rubbing, honing, or polishing

WASH
A sloped area or the area water will run over

WATER BASE
Containing water soluble or water dispersible binders

WATER MARK; WARTER RING
A common misconception that many people have is that these whitish ’stains’ or marks are caused by water. They are actually caused by acid alone or in the water that causes the calcium in the stone to neutralize the acid. This results in a portion of the stone surface actually being dissolved. See also ’Etching’

WATER OF CRYSTALLIZATION
The extra water required to assist in the crystallization process when forming a hydrate (mortar, cement, concrete, plaster, etc…) When the hydrate gives up this excess water, at ambient temperatures, the result is a surface deposit known as efflorescence or staining

WATERPROOFING
A coating used to treat the surface of the substrate, preventing liquid from entering, but allowing water vapor transmission

WAXING
A trade expression used in fabrication of interior marble to describe the process of filling natural voids with cements, shellac, or other materials

WEAR
The artificial removal of material, or impairment of the stone surface finish, through friction or impact

WEDGING
Splitting of stone by driving wedges into planes of weakness

WEEP HOLES
An opening for drainage in veneer joints or in the structural components supporting the veneer

WETTING
The ability of a coating to flow out, spread, or penetrate a substrate

WHEATHERED JOINT
A slope to the outside of the upper part of a joint to shed water

WHEATHERING
Natural alteration by either chemical or mechanical processes due to the action of the atmosphere, surface waters, soil and other ground waters, or to temperature changes. Changes by weathering are not necessarily undesirable or harmful

WHOLESALER
One who purchases dimensional stone in all forms for resale to the trade

WIND (WINED)
A warp in a semi-finished stone slab to be removed by further fabrication

WINDOW SILL
The bottom section of a window frame and/or the bottom section of an exterior masonry window opening

WINDOW STOOL
A narrow shelf fitted across the lower part on the inside of a window opening

WIRE SAW
A sawing device consisting of one or more wire cables, running over pulleys used to cut natural stone into blocks and slabs by tension and fed slurry of an abrasive and water cuts by abrasion

WIRE SAWN
A method of cutting stone by passing a twisted, multi-strand wire over the stone, and immersing the wire in a slurry of abrasive material

WRAP AROUND
The ability of a coating to cover all areas of the substrate to which it is applied, including edges. Also, the effect of an electrostatic charge upon a coating and the ability of the coating to cover all exposed conductive areas