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RABBETT
A groove cut into the surface along an edge so as to receive another piece similarly cut

RACKING
Stepping back successive courses of masonry

RAKE
An angular cut on the face of stone

RANDOM
A stone pattern where joints are web-like

RANDOM ASHLAR
Masonry of square or rectangular stones with neither vertical nor horizontal joints continuous and installed without patterns

RANDOM MASONRY
That in which the course heights vary in size

RANGE
A course of any thickness that is continued across the entire face. All range courses need not be of the same thickness

RANGE OF COLOR
The extent of variation of color, shade, markings, texture, veining, and other characteristics of dimension stone, usually defined by using a number of samples or a mock-up

RE-CRYSTALLIZED LIMESTONE
A limestone in which a new pattern of crystalline has pervasively replaced the crystal orientation in the original clastic particles, fossils, or fossil fragments, and interstitial cement

RE-POINTING
Raking out, refilling, and finishing joints with new mortar

REBATED KERF
An additional cut that countersinks a kerf from to the back edge of another piece of stone for the purpose of additional anchor clearance. It is not a gauged cut. If used for a bearing surface, must be shimmed to allow for tolerance in the cut

RECEPTOR
Combined floor and curb used as the bottom of showers

REEDED
Reversed fluted

REGRATING
Removing the surface of stone in place by some dressing method to clean by exposing fresh stone

REINFORCEMENT
A fabrication technique often called ’rodding’. Refers to the strengthening of unsound marble and limestone by cementing aluminum or stainless steel rods into grooves or channels cut into the back of a stone unit. Another method of ’reinforcement’ is the lamination of fiberglass to the back of tile units

RELIEF
Carving or embossing raised above a background plane, as in a bas-relief

RESINING
In relation to the stone trade, a process by which a fluid (epoxy) resin is made to be absorbed by the stone it is applied to in order to fill most natural fissures, nicks and crevices. It appears to also dramatically reduce the natural absorbency rate of the many very porous stone

RESTORATION
Work performed, including cleaning, repair, and finishing, returning the stone to its original character, finish, and condition

RETAINING WALL STONE
Stones which have multiple widths and thicknesses, used as a self-supporting wall with no back-up

RETARDING AGENT
A chemical admixture to mortar or grout that slows setting or hardening

RETEMPURING
To moisten mortar and re-mix after original mixing, to the proper consistency for use

RETUCLITATED WORK
Stone surface hand dressed to show a netlike or vein like raised pattern. Also, a wall built of square pieces set diagonally, with the joints showing a netlike pattern

RETURN
The right angle turns of a wall, molding, or other horizontal projecting member

RETURN HEAD
Stone facing with the finish appearing on both the face and the edge of the same stone; as on the corner of a building

REVEAL
The depth of stone between its outer face and a window or door set in an opening; the reveal is at 90 degrees to the front face

RIFT
The most pronounced direction of splitting or cleavage of a stone. Rift and grain may be obscure, as in some granite, but are important in both quarrying and processing stone

RIPRAP
Irregular shaped stones used for facing bridge abutments and fills; stones thrown together without order to form a foundation, sustain walls, or minimize soil erosion. Also used for rustic stepping stones and patios

RISE
Refers to the heights of stone, generally used in reference to veneer stone

RISING RAMP
Ground water that travels upward through a masonry wall by means of natural capillary action

RIVEN
Split along natural cleavage planes, describes surface finish

ROCK
An integral part of the earth’s crust composed of an aggregate of grains of one or more minerals (‘stone’ is the commercial term applied to quarry products)

ROCK (PITCH) FACE
This is similar to split face, except that the face of the stone is pitched to a given line and plain, producing a bold appearance rather than the comparatively straight face obtained in split face

ROCKED FINISH
An edge that is spalted from both sides, leaving a bubbled appearance

RODDING
Reinforcement of a structurally unsound marble by cementing reinforcing rods into grooves or channels cut into the back of the slab

ROMAN ARCH
Semi-circular arch with all stone pieces being wedge shaped

ROSE WINDOW
A circular stone window fitted with carved tracery

ROUGH BACK
Outside cut-slab, having one side sawed and the other rough, from a block that has been gang sawed

ROUGH SAWN
A surface finish accomplished by the gang sawing process

ROUGHING OUT
A preliminary stone cutting or carving process, removing the bulk of unwanted material

ROWLOCK
A brick laid on its face with the end surface visible in the wall face. Frequently spelled rolock

RUBBED FINISH
Mechanically rubbed for smoother finish; may have slight scratches

RUBBING STONE
Abrasive stone that is used to smooth the edges of stone tile

RUBBLE
A product term applied to dimension stone used for building purposes, chiefly walls and foundations and consisting of irregularly shaped pieces, partly trimmed or squared, generally with one split or finished face, and selected and specified within a site range

RUSTIC
Generally local stone, that is roughly hand dressed, and intentionally laid with high relief in relatively modest structures or rural character. Also, a grade of building limestone, characterized by coarse texture

RUSTICATED
Emphasized joints recessed or beveled which are cut or formed in stonework

RUSTIFICATION
Recessing the margin of cut stone so that when placed together a channel is formed at each joint