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Glossary of Terms

Glossary is usually defined as an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge. This knowledge base glossary provides a collection of knowledge base documents that define many technical terms. These terms are arranged alphabetically, but you can quickly jump to a specific term by selecting its first letter from the index of the knowledge base glossary below.

PALLETIZED
A system of stacking stone on wooden pallets for shipment or storage. Stone which comes palletized is easily moved and transported by modern handling equipment. Palletized stone generally arrives at the site in better condition then non-palletized material
PANEL
A single unit of fabricated stone veneer
PARGING
Damp proofing by applying a coat of mortar to the back of the stone units or to the face of the back-up material
PARQUETRY
Inlay of stone floors in geometrical or other patterns consisting of two or more colors or materials
PATCH
Repair compound used to fill natural voids or to replace chips and broken corners or edges in fabricated pieces of dimension stone. Mixed or selected to match the stone in color and texture
PATINA
The color and texture added to a surface by time and various allies
PAVER
A single unit of fabricated stone for use as an exterior paving material
PEDESTAL
A stone supporting structure or piece for a bust, column, statue, or vase
PERMEABILITY
The property of a substance which permits passage of water vapor; moisture vapor transmission
PERPENDER
A stone extending through the thickness of a wall and finished on both ends
PERRONS
Slabs of stone set on other stones serving as stops and arches in gardens
PETROGLYPHY
Primitive stone carving
PHENOCYRST
In igneous rocks, the relatively large and conspicuous crystals in a finer-grain matrix or ground mass. A number denoting the degree of acidity or alkalinity; 7 is a neutral value. Acidity increases with decreasing values below 7, while alkalinity increases with increasing values above 7
PHENOL
A class of acid organic compounds used in the manufacture of epoxy resins, phenol formaldehyde resins, plasticizers, plastics and wood preservatives
PICKED
Stone dressed using mason’s point
PIER
Solid stone support, smaller than and distinct from a column
PILASTER
Engaged pier of shallow depth. In classical architecture it follows the height and width of related columns with similar base sod cap. In classical architecture, it follows the height and width of related columns, with similar base and cap
PISCINA
In ecclesiastical architecture, a basin of stone or marble in which the challice is washed after the rite of the Eucharist
PITCHED
Surface resembling rock-faced produced with pitching tool
PITCHED STONE
Stone having arris clearly defined, face however is roughly cut with pitching chisel used along the line which becomes the arris
PLANER
Machine for planing moldings on to stone; machine used to reduce thickness and gauge stone; machine used to produce a machine finish on limestone
PLATE TRACERY
Tracery designs, usually simple and geometrical, cut through a thin slab of stone, as distinguished from a tracery proper, which is formed by mortared sections of molding
PLINTHS
The lower square part of the base of a column. A square base or a lower block, as in a pedestal. The base blocks at the juncture of base-board and trim around an opening
PLUCKED FINISH
Obtained by rough planning the surface of stone, braking or plucking out small particles to give rough texture
PLUG AND FEATHERS
Tools used for splitting stone blocks
PLUMB BOMB
A shaped metal weight that is suspended from the lower end of a line to determine the vertical trueness
PLUMB RULE
A narrow board with parallel edges having a straight line drawn through the middle and a string attached at the upper end of the line for determining a vertical plane
POINT
Chisel drawn nearly to a point
POINT FINISH
A rough, tooled surface
POINTING
The final filling and finishing of mortar joints that have been raked out
POLISHED
The finest and smoothest finish available in stone, generally only possible on hard, dense materials. Or, a glossy finish which brings out the full color and character of the stone
POLYESTER RESIN
A flexible, usually thermal setting resin formed by a polymerization process using a small amount of accelerator compound and used as an adhesive or to repair or fill certain stones
POLYETHYLENE FILM
Plastic film sheet used for curing or as a cleavage or isolation membrane
POROSITY
Ratio of pore space to the total volume of material expressed as a percent
PORPHYRY
Igneous rock characterized by distinct and contrasting sizes of course and fine grained crystals. Used as a decorative building stone
PORTLAND CEMENT
A hydraulic cement product obtained by pulverizing and calcimining a properly proportioned mixture of three minerals: lime, silica, and alumina
POSITIVE LIP
When a factory-finished tile (or whatever different cut of stone) is installed higher in relation of at least three other surrounding tiles
POULTICING
Method of drawing soluble salts or stains out of stone by applying an absorbent such as clay or diatomaceous earth mixed to a paste with water or cleaning solvent
PRE-CAST
Having received its final form before introduction into a structure, as in pre-cast concrete slabs
PREASSEMBLED UNITS
Two or more stones combined into a single unit by use of epoxy resins, steel framing or concrete backing
PRESSURE RELIEVING JOINT
An open horizontal joint below the supporting angle or hanger located at approximately every floor line and not over 15 ft. apart horizontally, and every 20-30 ft. vertically, to prevent the weight from being transmitted to the masonry below. These joints are to be caulked with a resilient non-staining material to prevent moisture penetration
PRODUCER
One who quarries stone
PROFILE
The outline of the exposed face of a cross section
PROFILE MACHINE
Machine for cutting moldings on to stone
PROJECTIONS
Refers to the pulling out of stones in a veneered wall to give an effect of ruggedness. The amount each stone is pulled out can vary between ¼ inch and 1½ inches. Stones are either pulled out at the same degree at both ends or sometimes one end is pulled out leaving the other flush with the majority of veneer
PYRITE
The natural sulfides of certain metals. The most common is iron pyrite, which is iron disulfide, a brittle mineral that is brassy yellow in color with greenish-black streaks