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LAMINATION
The gluing of two pieces of stone together to produce an edge that can be shaped to create an aesthetic appearance for countertops

LAP
To overlap one surface with another

LATERAL SUPPORT
Method whereby walls or columns are braced in the vertical span by beams, floors or roofs, or walls in the horizontal span by columns, pilasters, buttresses or cross walls

LATEX ADHESIVE
Rubber or resins in water which coalesce to form a continuous film that imparts specific properties to Portland cement products

LAVA
A general term applied to igneous rocks such as basalt and rhyolite that erupted from the earth by volcanic action

LEAN MORTAR
Mortar that is deficient in cement components. It is usually harsh and difficult to spread

LEGS
Vertical dimension stone used on sides of a fireplace opening

LEWIS BOLT
A tapered head device wedged into a tapered recess in the edge of a dimensional stone unit, used for lifting purposes and hanging soffits

LEWIS HOLES
Holes in cut stones for lifting and supporting during setting of cut stones and sometimes for permanent support. Holes are checked for the particular Lewis (lifting device or hook) to be used

LIME HYDRATED
Carbon hydroxide or slaked lime that has been reduced to dry powder

LIME PUTTY
Hydrated lime on plastic form ready for addition to mortar

LIME-HYDRAULIC
Containing compounds which cause a chemical set in reaction with water

LIMESTONE
Sedimentary rock originated mostly by the decomposition of marine organism composed primarily of calcite or dolomite. The varieties of limestone used as dimension stone are usually well consolidated and exhibit a minimum of graining or bedding direction

LINE PIN
A metal pin used to attach line used for alignment of masonry units

LINERS
Structurally sound sections of stone that are cemented and dowelled to the back of stone wall units, to give greater strength, additional bearing surface, assist in support, or to increase joint depth

LINTEL
A beam placed or constructed over an opening in a wall to carry the superimposed load

LIPPAGE
A condition where one edge of a stone tile is higher than adjacent edges, making the overall surface not truly flat but rather giving it a ragged appearance. Acceptable lippage for stone tiles is not more than 1/32 of an inch - about the thickness of a credit card.

LIPPING
Usually refers to flagging materials. Lipping is caused when two pieces of material to be joined together are slightly warped or twisted causing one or more edges to be higher or lower than the adjoining material

LOAD BEARING
A structural system or element designed to carry loads in addition to its own dead load

LUG
A small projecting member of a larger stone piece, to engage an adjoining unit or to serve as an aid in handling

LUG SILL
Stone sill set into the jambs on each side of masonry opening