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FABRICATION
The work involved in transforming building stone from quarry blocks to cut or finished stone. This includes primary sawing into slabs. It may also include both hand and mechanical techniques such as sawing, drilling, grinding, honing, polishing, and carving

FACE
Refers to the exposed surface of stone on the structure. Or, a horizontal belt of vertical face, often used in combination with moldings

FACIES, METAMORPHIC
A set of temperature and pressure conditions under which a group of metamorphic rocks is formed from pre-existing rocks (of any possible type)

FACTOR OF SAFETY
The factor by which the expected weight or stress is multiplied to indicate the surplus of strength or resistance provided for safety sake

FACTORY-FINISH INSTALLATION
Installation of a floor or wall executed with factory-finished stone tiles or factory-finished cuts of slabs. Antonym: grind-in-place installation

FALSE JOINT
A groove routed in a solid piece of stone to simulate a joint

FASCIA
A horizontal band of vertical face, often used in combinations with moldings

FAT MORTAR
Mortar containing a high percentage of cement components. It is a sticky mortar that adheres to a trowel

FAULT
A dislocation of stone strata which may interfere with natural underground drainage, or a break in the layers or bedding plane

FEATHER EDGE
A sharp arris formed by beveling or cutting a piece of stone

FELDSPAR
Any group of crystalline minerals, all silicates of aluminum with either, potassium, sodium, calcium or barium. An essential constituent of nearly all crystalline rocks

FERRUNGINOUS
Limestone or quartz-based stone (sandstone) containing a high proportion of iron oxide

FIELD STONE
Loose blocks separated from ledges by natural processes and scattered through or upon the ground cover; applied also to similar transported materials, such as glacial boulders and cobblestones

FIELDSTONE
A weathered stone found on top of the ground

FILLER STRIP
Refers to a resilient material placed in the rear portion of a joint to function as a sealant stop

FILLET
Rebate, often used as a decorative feature with moldings

FILLING
A trade expression used in the fabrication of marble to indicate the filling of natural voids with color-blended cements, shellac or synthetic resins and similar materials

FINES
The powder, dual, silt-size, and sand-size material resulting from processing (usually crush tog) rock

FINISH
Final surface applied to the face of dimensional stone during fabrication

FIREPLACE
An opening on a hearth, served by a chimney flue, where an open fire may be laid

FIREPROOFING
Any material or combination protecting structural members and increasing their fire resistance

FIXING
A term used in Europe to describe the installation of stone work

FLAGSTONE
Thin slabs of stone used for flagging or paving walks, driveways, patios, etc. It is generally a fine-grained sandstone, bluestone, quartzite, or slate, but thin slabs of other stones may be used

FLAMED FINISH
A very rugged surface finish of certain stones (mostly mercantile granites) produced by popping the crystals on the surface of the slab or tile with a potent blow-torch. See Thermal Finish

FLASHING
Manufacturing process to produce specific color tones in clay units by creating a reducing atmosphere in the kiln. Or, a thin impervious material placed in mortar joints and through air spaces in masonry to prevent water penetration and provide water drainage. Also, metal or other protective material used to cover joints, tops of walls, parapet walls, or angles, as of a roof

FLEURI
The mottled effect obtained when certain marble varieties are sawn parallel to their natural bedding plane

FLEURI CUT
Unique to the marble industry, it is cut parallel to the natural bedding plane

FLINT
Dense, fine-grained, naturally occurring form of silica that fractures conchoidally

FLOAT
A mason’s tool, a flat board with handle on one side, used for spreading and smoothing plaster or cement

FLOAT COAT
The final mortar coat applied with a float over which the neat coat is applied

FLOORING
Stone used as an interior pedestrian walking surface

FLUTED
Stone having a regular series of concave grooves

FLUTING
Shallow, concave, parallel grooves running vertically on the shaft of a column, pilaster, or other surface

FOUR-CORNER FINISH
Coarse bush-hammered finish with same characteristics as 6-cut, but with markings not more than 7/32 in. apart

FOUR-MAN BOULDERS
Rough stones less than 750 pounds

FOYER
A subordinate space between an entrance and the main interior to which it leads

FREESTONE
A stone that may be cut freely in any direction without fracture or splitting

FRIEZE
Flat member of the entablature occurring above the architrave and below the cornice

FROG
A depression in the bed surface of a brick, sometimes called a panel

FRONT
The more important face of a building, or that containing its main entrance

FULL MORTAR BEDDING
Mortar applied to the entire thickness of a masonry unit

FURRING
The method of finishing the interior face of masonry wall to provide space for insulation, to prevent moisture transmittance, or to provide a smooth or plane surface for finishing