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Glossary of Terms

Glossary is usually defined as an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge. This knowledge base glossary provides a collection of knowledge base documents that define many technical terms. These terms are arranged alphabetically, but you can quickly jump to a specific term by selecting its first letter from the index of the knowledge base glossary below.

FABRICATION
The work involved in transforming building stone from quarry blocks to cut or finished stone. This includes primary sawing into slabs. It may also include both hand and mechanical techniques such as sawing, drilling, grinding, honing, polishing, and carving
FACE
Refers to the exposed surface of stone on the structure. Or, a horizontal belt of vertical face, often used in combination with moldings
FACIES, METAMORPHIC
A set of temperature and pressure conditions under which a group of metamorphic rocks is formed from pre-existing rocks (of any possible type)
FACTOR OF SAFETY
The factor by which the expected weight or stress is multiplied to indicate the surplus of strength or resistance provided for safety sake
FACTORY-FINISH INSTALLATION
Installation of a floor or wall executed with factory-finished stone tiles or factory-finished cuts of slabs. Antonym: grind-in-place installation
FALSE JOINT
A groove routed in a solid piece of stone to simulate a joint
FASCIA
A horizontal band of vertical face, often used in combinations with moldings
FAT MORTAR
Mortar containing a high percentage of cement components. It is a sticky mortar that adheres to a trowel
FAULT
A dislocation of stone strata which may interfere with natural underground drainage, or a break in the layers or bedding plane
FEATHER EDGE
A sharp arris formed by beveling or cutting a piece of stone
FELDSPAR
Any group of crystalline minerals, all silicates of aluminum with either, potassium, sodium, calcium or barium. An essential constituent of nearly all crystalline rocks
FERRUNGINOUS
Limestone or quartz-based stone (sandstone) containing a high proportion of iron oxide
FIELD STONE
Loose blocks separated from ledges by natural processes and scattered through or upon the ground cover; applied also to similar transported materials, such as glacial boulders and cobblestones
FIELDSTONE
A weathered stone found on top of the ground
FILLER STRIP
Refers to a resilient material placed in the rear portion of a joint to function as a sealant stop
FILLET
Rebate, often used as a decorative feature with moldings
FILLING
A trade expression used in the fabrication of marble to indicate the filling of natural voids with color-blended cements, shellac or synthetic resins and similar materials
FINES
The powder, dual, silt-size, and sand-size material resulting from processing (usually crush tog) rock
FINISH
Final surface applied to the face of dimensional stone during fabrication
FIREPLACE
An opening on a hearth, served by a chimney flue, where an open fire may be laid
FIREPROOFING
Any material or combination protecting structural members and increasing their fire resistance
FIXING
A term used in Europe to describe the installation of stone work
FLAGSTONE
Thin slabs of stone used for flagging or paving walks, driveways, patios, etc. It is generally a fine-grained sandstone, bluestone, quartzite, or slate, but thin slabs of other stones may be used
FLAMED FINISH
A very rugged surface finish of certain stones (mostly mercantile granites) produced by popping the crystals on the surface of the slab or tile with a potent blow-torch. See Thermal Finish
FLASHING
Manufacturing process to produce specific color tones in clay units by creating a reducing atmosphere in the kiln. Or, a thin impervious material placed in mortar joints and through air spaces in masonry to prevent water penetration and provide water drainage. Also, metal or other protective material used to cover joints, tops of walls, parapet walls, or angles, as of a roof
FLEURI
The mottled effect obtained when certain marble varieties are sawn parallel to their natural bedding plane
FLEURI CUT
Unique to the marble industry, it is cut parallel to the natural bedding plane
FLINT
Dense, fine-grained, naturally occurring form of silica that fractures conchoidally
FLOAT
A mason’s tool, a flat board with handle on one side, used for spreading and smoothing plaster or cement
FLOAT COAT
The final mortar coat applied with a float over which the neat coat is applied
FLOORING
Stone used as an interior pedestrian walking surface
FLUTED
Stone having a regular series of concave grooves
FLUTING
Shallow, concave, parallel grooves running vertically on the shaft of a column, pilaster, or other surface
FOUR-CORNER FINISH
Coarse bush-hammered finish with same characteristics as 6-cut, but with markings not more than 7/32 in. apart
FOUR-MAN BOULDERS
Rough stones less than 750 pounds
FOYER
A subordinate space between an entrance and the main interior to which it leads
FREESTONE
A stone that may be cut freely in any direction without fracture or splitting
FRIEZE
Flat member of the entablature occurring above the architrave and below the cornice
FROG
A depression in the bed surface of a brick, sometimes called a panel
FRONT
The more important face of a building, or that containing its main entrance
FULL MORTAR BEDDING
Mortar applied to the entire thickness of a masonry unit
FURRING
The method of finishing the interior face of masonry wall to provide space for insulation, to prevent moisture transmittance, or to provide a smooth or plane surface for finishing