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CALCAREOUS
Calcium-bearing rock

CALCITE
A common crystalline form of natural calcium carbonate, CaCO3, it is the main mineral composing most limestones and geological marbles. Also called calcspar

CALCITE LIMESTONE
A limestone containing not more than 5% of magnesium carbonate

CALCITE MARBLE
A crystalline variety of limestone containing not more than 5% of magnesium carbonate

CALCITE STREAKS
Descriptions of a white or milky-like streak occurring in stone. It is a joint plane usually wider than a glass seam and has been re-cemented by deposition of calcite in the crack and is structurally sound

CALCIUM OXIDE
Calcined limestone

CAMBER
A slight rising from the horizontal, to gain an actual or apparent effect of arching

CANTERA
A volcanic, quartz-based stone with qualities similar to adoquin, but not as dense. Quarried in Mexico

CAP STONE
The crowning stone of a structure; differing from capital in that it is not a supporting member

CAPACITY INSULATION
The ability of masonry to store heat as a result of its mass, density and specific heat

CAPILLARY ACTION
The movement of a liquid in the interstices of a porous material, as a result of surface tension; the phenomenon responsible for dry materials sucking moisture above the normal water level

CARBONATE
A salt of carbonic acid

CARBONIC ACID
A weak acid

CAST STONE
A precast concrete building stone manufactured to simulate dimension stone

CATALYST
A substance which accelerates a chemical reaction but appears to remain unchanged itself (i.e. a hardener that accelerates the cure of synthetic resin adhesive)

CAULK
Non-staining, non-hardening putty-like mastic, usually applied to stone joints with a pressure gun

CEMENT
A hydraulic mixture, without aggregate, consisting of a calcined mixture of clay and pulverized limestone

CHAMFER
To bevel the junction of an exterior angle. Or, to cut away the edge where two surfaces meet in an external angle, leaving a bevel at the junction

CHAT SAWED
Description of a textured stone finish, obtained by using chat sand in the gang sawing process

CHIP
A small, irregularly shaped stone piece dislodged, usually from the edge, from a stone piece

CIRCULAR FACE
A stone face worked to convex spherical shape

CIRCULAR SUNK FACE
A stone face worked to concave spherical shape

CLADDING
An exterior veneer stone covering

CLASTIC
Stone fragments that are derived from pre-existing rocks or miner

CLAY
A natural mineral aggregate consisting essentially of hydrous aluminum silicate. It is plastic when sufficiently wetted, stiff when dried, and vitrified when fired to a sufficiently high temperature

CLAY MORTAR
A soft, low lime mortar usually used when lime was expensive and difficult to procure. Its primary usage was in remote areas for small scale buildings

CLEAN BACK
The visible end of a stone laid as a bond stone

CLEANOUT HOLES
Openings at the bottom of a grout space for cleaning mortar droppings and other debris prior to grout placement

CLEAR COATING
An invisible to glossy film or penetrate applied to substrates to protect, repel or resist water and hydration of minerals

CLEARANCE
Space allowed to facilitate erection of units and provide for thermal and other estimated movements in structure

CLEAVAGE
The ability of a rock mass to break along natural surfaces; a surface of natural parting. Also used to refer to the plane or planes along which a stone may likely break or delaminate

CLEAVAGE MEMBRANE
Membrane that provides a separation and slip sheet between the mortar setting bed and the backing or base surface

CLEAVAGE PLANE
Plane or planes along which a stone may likely break or delaminate

CLIFT FINISH
Rough-surfaced stones such as slates that are cleaved or separated along a natural seam are referred to as natural cleft. These types of stones were formed as a result of metamorphic foliation

COATING
A protective or decorative covering applied to the surface or impregnated into stone for such purposes as waterproofing, enhancing resistance to weathering, wear, and chemical action, or altering the app earance of the stone

COBBLESTONE
A dimension stone large enough for use in paving. A term commonly used to describe paving blocks, usually granite, and generally cut to rectangular shapes

COMMERCIAL MARBLE
A crystalline rock composed predominately of one or more of the following minerals: calcite, dolomite, or serpentine, and capable of taking a polish

COMPACT LIMESTONE
Rocks that are traded as marble but are not metamorphic rocks. (They preserve their sedimentary nature.)

COMPOSITE
A construction unit in which stone that is to be exposed in the final use is permanently bonded or joined to concealed material

CONDENSATION
Dampness of interior surfaces caused by the release of water as it cools below the dew point; the formation of frost or water when air carrying water vapor comes in contact with a cold surface, cooling the air and reducing its ability to hold moisture

CONGLOMERATE
A stone similar to sandstone but the rock particles are rounded or angular gravel rather than sand; an aggregate of rounded and water-worn pebbles and boulders cemented together into a coherent stone

CONSOLIDATION
Treatment of the stone surface with a liquid solution which is commonly brush or spray applied. Various stone consolidation processes can extend the life of stone and retard the decay process, but they cannot permanently arrest deterioration

CONTOUR SCALING
A crust forming across the surface of sandstones and limestones which follows the contour of the surface rather than the bedding planes of the stones. The result of direct pollution. The pores of the stone are blocked by formations of recrystallized calcium sulfates

CONTROL JOINT
A joint that allows for dimensional changes of different parts of a structure due to shrinkage, expansion, variations in temperature, or other causes. Its purpose is to prevent development of high stresses in the structure

COPE STONE
The horizontal top stone of a wall or similar stone construction, usually flat

COPING
A cap or covering course on top of masonry wall. Designed to shed water, protect the top and provide a finished, closed appearance to the wall. Commonly extended beyond the wall face and incorporating a drip.SEC: Single edge coping.DEC: Double edge coping

COQUINA
Limestone composed predominately of shells or fragments of shells loosely cemented by calcite. Coquina is course-textured and has a high porosity. The term is applied principally to a very porous rock quarried in Florida

CORAL LIMESTONE
A limestone consisting of the calcareous skeletons of corals, often containing fragments of other organisms and usually cemented by calcium carbonate

CORNERSTONE
A stone forming a part of a corner or angle in a wall. Also a stone laid at the formal inauguration of the erection of a building

CORNICE
A molded projecting stone at the top of an entablature or facade

CORROSION RESISTANT
items which have been treated or coated to retard harmful oxidation or other corrosive action

COURSE
A continuous horizontal band of stone of constant height

COURSED VENEER
This is achieved by using stones of the same or approximately the same heights. Horizontal joints run on the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are constantly broken so that no two joints will be over one another

COUSSINET
French for the stone at the top of a pier supporting the lowest stone of an arch

COVE BASE
A concave stone mold

COVE JOINT
A concave joint shaped with a tool

CRACK
A break, split, fracture, fissure, separation, cleavage, or elongated narrow opening, however caused, visible without magnification to the human eye and extending from the surface into the stone, through the gra in, matrix, or vein

CRAMP
A U shaped metal anchor for holding two adjacent units of stone together

CRANDALL
A multi-pointed hammer for dressing the face of stone

CRATERING
Depression in a coating film usually caused by air or solvent trapped in the coating, forming bubbles which break after the film has set sufficiently to prevent leveling

CROSSETTE
(Croissette, Crosset) A side lug at the upper side of an arch stone, entering a corresponding space on the adjoining stone