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BACK ARCH
A concealed arch carrying the back lug of a wall where the exterior facing is carried by a lintel

BACK FILING
Rough masonry built behind a facing or between two faces. Or, filling over the extrados of an arch; brickwork in spaces between structural timbers, sometimes called brick nogging

BACKING
The part of a veneer wall behind the exterior facing which is designed to resist load

BACKING ROD
A flexible and compressible type of closed cell-foam polyethylene, butyl rubber, or open cell and closed cell polyurethane, rounded at surface to contact sealant. It is installed at the bottom or rear of joint and often described as a filler strip

BANKER
A bench of timber or stone (may be a single block) on which stone is worked

BASALT
A dense textured (aphanitic) igneous rock relatively high in iron and magnesia minerals and relatively low in silica, generally dark gray to black, and feldspathic. A general term in contradistinction to felsite, a light colored feldspathic and highly siliceous rock or similar texture and origin. The colors of basalts are very dark green to black and often sold as granites, but unlike granites, basalt contains little or no quartz or feldspars

BASE BLOCK
The squared block terminating a baseboard at the opening

BASE COURSE
The lowest course or footing of a wall or pier

BATTED
Stone surface finish produced with parallel tool marks

BED
In granites and marbles a layer or sheet of the rock mass that is horizontal, commonly curved and lenticular as developed by fractures. Sometimes applied also to the surface of parting between the sheets. Or, in stratified rocks the unit layer formed by sedimentation; of variable thickness and commonly tilted or distorted by subsequent deformation; generally develops a rock cleavage, parting or jointing along the planes of stratification

BED JOINT
A horizontal joint between stones, usually filled with mortar, lead, or sealant

BEDDING PLANE
Horizontal plane of sedimentary stone in the position of its original formation

BELT COURSE
A continuous horizontal course of flat stones place in line marking a division in the wall plane. Sometimes called band course, string course, or sill course

BENCH
Steps formed in quarry by removal of stone following bed joints. Or, a long seat of cubic stone

BERM
A bank of earth, such as the piled-up earth against a stone wall

BIOTITE
A black, brown, or dark-green mica, a magnesium iron silicate

BLACK GRANITE
Dark colored igneous rocks defined by geologists as basalt, diabase, gabbro, diorite, and anorthosite, quarried as building stone, building facings, and specialty purposes and identified as Black Granite when sold

BLEED
Staining caused by corrosive metals, oil-based putties, mastics, caulking, or sealing compounds

BLENDS
Mixes of different generic raw materials to form a water repellent

BLUESTONE
Regional sandstone quarried in the Catskill area of New York State and Western Pennsylvania

BRECCIA
Clastic sedimentary stone made by fragment angular rocks bonded together. It is divided in polygenetic breccia (when it is made by fragments of rocks with different mineralogy) or monogenetic breccia (when it is made by fragments of rocks of the same mineralogy). The matrix and bonding are generally clay, calcite and silica