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ABRASION RESISTANCE
The property of a surface by which it resists being worn away as a result of friction.

ABRASIVE FINISH
A flat and non-reflective finish.

ABRASIVE HARDNESS
Refers to the wearing qualities of stone for floors, stair treads and similar uses subjected to abrasion by foot traffic.

ABSORPTION
Percentage of moisture absorption by weight. The process by which a liquid is taken into (soaked up by) another substance and held there

ABUTMENT
The supporting wall or pier that receives the thrust of an arch; a solid stone springer at the lowest point of an arch, vault or beam

ACCELERATOR
A material used to speed the setting of mortar, epoxy, and polyester resins

ACID WASH
A treatment applied to the face of a stone to achieve a texture or finish that is distressed. Chemical treatments are more effective when applied to calcareous stones than to siliceous stone types. Recently, the use of acid and other types of chemical treatments has lessened due to environmental and disposal concerns. Chemical processes have been replaced by mechanical methods for the texturing of the stone face

ACRYLIC EMULSIONS
Clear water-based repellents which form a film. The acrylic resins come from the polymerization of derivatives of acrylic acids, including esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylonitrite, and their copolymers. Acrylics resins vary from hard brittle solids, to fibrous elastomeric structures to viscous liquids, depending on the monomer used and the method of polymerization

ACRYLICS
Resins resulting from the polymerization of derivatives of acrylic acids including esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylonitrite, and their copolymers. They can be carried in a water or solvent solution and they are film-forming materials

ACTIVE SOLIDS
Ingredients of a coating composition which are deposited following co-reaction or reaction with the substrate. Active solids are usually measured as a weight percent of the total

ADHERED
Stone veneer secured and supported by adhesion of an approved bonding material over an approved backing

ADOQUIN
A volcanic quartz-based stone containing a variety of colored aggregates and pumice in a quartz matrix. Quarried in Mexico and available in several colors

AGATE
A variegated variety or quartz allowing colored bands or other markings (clouded, moss-like, etc.)

AGGLOMERATE
A man-made product fabricated to look like quarried stone. Usually composed of stone chips or fragments embedded in a matrix of mortar or thermosetting resins.

AGGREGATE
Materials that are added to mortar or grout at time of mixing to impart special properties to the mortar or grout; quantities of loose fragments of rock or mineral

ALABASTER
A fine grained, translucent variety of gypsum, generally white in color. May be cut and carved easily with a knife or saw. The term is often incorrectly applied to fine-grained marble

ALTERATION
Any project involving change of, or addition to, an existing building

ALUMINA
Aluminum oxide

ALUMINUM STEARATE
Complex salt or soap of aluminum and stearic acid. Used as a flattering and antisettling agent for pigments in paint and varnish, water repellents and cement additives

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Temperature of the surrounding environment

ANHYDROUS
A hydrate which has given up all its previously held water molecules

ANORTHOSITE
An usually dark-colored igneous rock consisting mostly or entirely of calcic plagioclase

ANTIQUE FINISH
A finish that replicates rusticated or distressed textures. Produced through mechanical or chemical means to simulate the naturally occurring effects of the aging process

APEX STONE
Top stone of gable, spire, or pediment

APRON
A trim piece under a projecting stone top

ARAGONITE (CaCO3)
A translucent white mineral found in calcium carbonate; a mineral with the same chemical formula of calcite, but the shape of the calcium carbonate crystals are different (orthorhombic). It can be found as a minority component of certain limestones and marbles. Most common form of Aragonite is Nacre (Mother of Pearl) and Mexican Marble-Onyx

ARCUATED CONSTRUCTION
Stone masonry in compression, using arch and vault

ARGILLITE
A compact metamorphic rock composed mainly of clay or shale, and aluminum silicate minerals. Similar to slate in appearance and splitting properties, but usually much harder

AROMATIC SOLVENTS
Hydrocarbon solvents comprised of organic compounds which contain an unsaturated ring of carbon atoms, including benzene, naphthalene and their derivatives

ARRIS
The angle, corner, or edge produced by the meeting of two surfaces; the edge of external angle. A natural or applied line on the stone from which all the leveling and plumbing is measured.ARTIFICIAL MARBLE A man-made product that may look like natural quarried marble, sometimes composed of thermosetting resins as a matrix and fillers

ARTIFICIAL STONE
A substitute for dimension stone made by casting selected aggregates and cement in molds