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Glossary of Terms

Glossary is usually defined as an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge. This knowledge base glossary provides a collection of knowledge base documents that define many technical terms. These terms are arranged alphabetically, but you can quickly jump to a specific term by selecting its first letter from the index of the knowledge base glossary below.

ABRASION RESISTANCE
The property of a surface by which it resists being worn away as a result of friction.
ABRASIVE FINISH
A flat and non-reflective finish.
ABRASIVE HARDNESS
Refers to the wearing qualities of stone for floors, stair treads and similar uses subjected to abrasion by foot traffic.
ABSORPTION
Percentage of moisture absorption by weight. The process by which a liquid is taken into (soaked up by) another substance and held there
ABUTMENT
The supporting wall or pier that receives the thrust of an arch; a solid stone springer at the lowest point of an arch, vault or beam
ACCELERATOR
A material used to speed the setting of mortar, epoxy, and polyester resins
ACID WASH
A treatment applied to the face of a stone to achieve a texture or finish that is distressed. Chemical treatments are more effective when applied to calcareous stones than to siliceous stone types. Recently, the use of acid and other types of chemical treatments has lessened due to environmental and disposal concerns. Chemical processes have been replaced by mechanical methods for the texturing of the stone face
ACRYLIC EMULSIONS
Clear water-based repellents which form a film. The acrylic resins come from the polymerization of derivatives of acrylic acids, including esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylonitrite, and their copolymers. Acrylics resins vary from hard brittle solids, to fibrous elastomeric structures to viscous liquids, depending on the monomer used and the method of polymerization
ACRYLICS
Resins resulting from the polymerization of derivatives of acrylic acids including esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylonitrite, and their copolymers. They can be carried in a water or solvent solution and they are film-forming materials
ACTIVE SOLIDS
Ingredients of a coating composition which are deposited following co-reaction or reaction with the substrate. Active solids are usually measured as a weight percent of the total
ADHERED
Stone veneer secured and supported by adhesion of an approved bonding material over an approved backing
ADOQUIN
A volcanic quartz-based stone containing a variety of colored aggregates and pumice in a quartz matrix. Quarried in Mexico and available in several colors
AGATE
A variegated variety or quartz allowing colored bands or other markings (clouded, moss-like, etc.)
AGGLOMERATE
A man-made product fabricated to look like quarried stone. Usually composed of stone chips or fragments embedded in a matrix of mortar or thermosetting resins.
AGGREGATE
Materials that are added to mortar or grout at time of mixing to impart special properties to the mortar or grout; quantities of loose fragments of rock or mineral
ALABASTER
A fine grained, translucent variety of gypsum, generally white in color. May be cut and carved easily with a knife or saw. The term is often incorrectly applied to fine-grained marble
ALTERATION
Any project involving change of, or addition to, an existing building
ALUMINA
Aluminum oxide
ALUMINUM STEARATE
Complex salt or soap of aluminum and stearic acid. Used as a flattering and antisettling agent for pigments in paint and varnish, water repellents and cement additives
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Temperature of the surrounding environment
ANHYDROUS
A hydrate which has given up all its previously held water molecules
ANORTHOSITE
An usually dark-colored igneous rock consisting mostly or entirely of calcic plagioclase
ANTIQUE FINISH
A finish that replicates rusticated or distressed textures. Produced through mechanical or chemical means to simulate the naturally occurring effects of the aging process
APEX STONE
Top stone of gable, spire, or pediment
APRON
A trim piece under a projecting stone top
ARAGONITE (CaCO3)
A translucent white mineral found in calcium carbonate; a mineral with the same chemical formula of calcite, but the shape of the calcium carbonate crystals are different (orthorhombic). It can be found as a minority component of certain limestones and marbles. Most common form of Aragonite is Nacre (Mother of Pearl) and Mexican Marble-Onyx
ARCUATED CONSTRUCTION
Stone masonry in compression, using arch and vault
ARGILLITE
A compact metamorphic rock composed mainly of clay or shale, and aluminum silicate minerals. Similar to slate in appearance and splitting properties, but usually much harder
AROMATIC SOLVENTS
Hydrocarbon solvents comprised of organic compounds which contain an unsaturated ring of carbon atoms, including benzene, naphthalene and their derivatives
ARRIS
The angle, corner, or edge produced by the meeting of two surfaces; the edge of external angle. A natural or applied line on the stone from which all the leveling and plumbing is measured.ARTIFICIAL MARBLE A man-made product that may look like natural quarried marble, sometimes composed of thermosetting resins as a matrix and fillers
ARTIFICIAL STONE
A substitute for dimension stone made by casting selected aggregates and cement in molds
BACK ARCH
A concealed arch carrying the back lug of a wall where the exterior facing is carried by a lintel
BACK FILING
Rough masonry built behind a facing or between two faces. Or, filling over the extrados of an arch; brickwork in spaces between structural timbers, sometimes called brick nogging
BACKING
The part of a veneer wall behind the exterior facing which is designed to resist load
BACKING ROD
A flexible and compressible type of closed cell-foam polyethylene, butyl rubber, or open cell and closed cell polyurethane, rounded at surface to contact sealant. It is installed at the bottom or rear of joint and often described as a filler strip
BANKER
A bench of timber or stone (may be a single block) on which stone is worked
BASALT
A dense textured (aphanitic) igneous rock relatively high in iron and magnesia minerals and relatively low in silica, generally dark gray to black, and feldspathic. A general term in contradistinction to felsite, a light colored feldspathic and highly siliceous rock or similar texture and origin. The colors of basalts are very dark green to black and often sold as granites, but unlike granites, basalt contains little or no quartz or feldspars
BASE BLOCK
The squared block terminating a baseboard at the opening
BASE COURSE
The lowest course or footing of a wall or pier
BATTED
Stone surface finish produced with parallel tool marks
BED
In granites and marbles a layer or sheet of the rock mass that is horizontal, commonly curved and lenticular as developed by fractures. Sometimes applied also to the surface of parting between the sheets. Or, in stratified rocks the unit layer formed by sedimentation; of variable thickness and commonly tilted or distorted by subsequent deformation; generally develops a rock cleavage, parting or jointing along the planes of stratification
BED JOINT
A horizontal joint between stones, usually filled with mortar, lead, or sealant
BEDDING PLANE
Horizontal plane of sedimentary stone in the position of its original formation
BELT COURSE
A continuous horizontal course of flat stones place in line marking a division in the wall plane. Sometimes called band course, string course, or sill course
BENCH
Steps formed in quarry by removal of stone following bed joints. Or, a long seat of cubic stone
BERM
A bank of earth, such as the piled-up earth against a stone wall
BIOTITE
A black, brown, or dark-green mica, a magnesium iron silicate
BLACK GRANITE
Dark colored igneous rocks defined by geologists as basalt, diabase, gabbro, diorite, and anorthosite, quarried as building stone, building facings, and specialty purposes and identified as Black Granite when sold
BLEED
Staining caused by corrosive metals, oil-based putties, mastics, caulking, or sealing compounds
BLENDS
Mixes of different generic raw materials to form a water repellent
BLUESTONE
Regional sandstone quarried in the Catskill area of New York State and Western Pennsylvania
BRECCIA
Clastic sedimentary stone made by fragment angular rocks bonded together. It is divided in polygenetic breccia (when it is made by fragments of rocks with different mineralogy) or monogenetic breccia (when it is made by fragments of rocks of the same mineralogy). The matrix and bonding are generally clay, calcite and silica
CALCAREOUS
Calcium-bearing rock
CALCITE
A common crystalline form of natural calcium carbonate, CaCO3, it is the main mineral composing most limestones and geological marbles. Also called calcspar
CALCITE LIMESTONE
A limestone containing not more than 5% of magnesium carbonate
CALCITE MARBLE
A crystalline variety of limestone containing not more than 5% of magnesium carbonate
CALCITE STREAKS
Descriptions of a white or milky-like streak occurring in stone. It is a joint plane usually wider than a glass seam and has been re-cemented by deposition of calcite in the crack and is structurally sound
CALCIUM OXIDE
Calcined limestone
CAMBER
A slight rising from the horizontal, to gain an actual or apparent effect of arching
CANTERA
A volcanic, quartz-based stone with qualities similar to adoquin, but not as dense. Quarried in Mexico
CAP STONE
The crowning stone of a structure; differing from capital in that it is not a supporting member
CAPACITY INSULATION
The ability of masonry to store heat as a result of its mass, density and specific heat
CAPILLARY ACTION
The movement of a liquid in the interstices of a porous material, as a result of surface tension; the phenomenon responsible for dry materials sucking moisture above the normal water level
CARBONATE
A salt of carbonic acid
CARBONIC ACID
A weak acid
CAST STONE
A precast concrete building stone manufactured to simulate dimension stone
CATALYST
A substance which accelerates a chemical reaction but appears to remain unchanged itself (i.e. a hardener that accelerates the cure of synthetic resin adhesive)
CAULK
Non-staining, non-hardening putty-like mastic, usually applied to stone joints with a pressure gun
CEMENT
A hydraulic mixture, without aggregate, consisting of a calcined mixture of clay and pulverized limestone
CHAMFER
To bevel the junction of an exterior angle. Or, to cut away the edge where two surfaces meet in an external angle, leaving a bevel at the junction
CHAT SAWED
Description of a textured stone finish, obtained by using chat sand in the gang sawing process
CHIP
A small, irregularly shaped stone piece dislodged, usually from the edge, from a stone piece
CIRCULAR FACE
A stone face worked to convex spherical shape
CIRCULAR SUNK FACE
A stone face worked to concave spherical shape
CLADDING
An exterior veneer stone covering
CLASTIC
Stone fragments that are derived from pre-existing rocks or miner
CLAY
A natural mineral aggregate consisting essentially of hydrous aluminum silicate. It is plastic when sufficiently wetted, stiff when dried, and vitrified when fired to a sufficiently high temperature
CLAY MORTAR
A soft, low lime mortar usually used when lime was expensive and difficult to procure. Its primary usage was in remote areas for small scale buildings
CLEAN BACK
The visible end of a stone laid as a bond stone
CLEANOUT HOLES
Openings at the bottom of a grout space for cleaning mortar droppings and other debris prior to grout placement
CLEAR COATING
An invisible to glossy film or penetrate applied to substrates to protect, repel or resist water and hydration of minerals
CLEARANCE
Space allowed to facilitate erection of units and provide for thermal and other estimated movements in structure
CLEAVAGE
The ability of a rock mass to break along natural surfaces; a surface of natural parting. Also used to refer to the plane or planes along which a stone may likely break or delaminate
CLEAVAGE MEMBRANE
Membrane that provides a separation and slip sheet between the mortar setting bed and the backing or base surface
CLEAVAGE PLANE
Plane or planes along which a stone may likely break or delaminate
CLIFT FINISH
Rough-surfaced stones such as slates that are cleaved or separated along a natural seam are referred to as natural cleft. These types of stones were formed as a result of metamorphic foliation
COATING
A protective or decorative covering applied to the surface or impregnated into stone for such purposes as waterproofing, enhancing resistance to weathering, wear, and chemical action, or altering the app earance of the stone
COBBLESTONE
A dimension stone large enough for use in paving. A term commonly used to describe paving blocks, usually granite, and generally cut to rectangular shapes
COMMERCIAL MARBLE
A crystalline rock composed predominately of one or more of the following minerals: calcite, dolomite, or serpentine, and capable of taking a polish
COMPACT LIMESTONE
Rocks that are traded as marble but are not metamorphic rocks. (They preserve their sedimentary nature.)
COMPOSITE
A construction unit in which stone that is to be exposed in the final use is permanently bonded or joined to concealed material
CONDENSATION
Dampness of interior surfaces caused by the release of water as it cools below the dew point; the formation of frost or water when air carrying water vapor comes in contact with a cold surface, cooling the air and reducing its ability to hold moisture
CONGLOMERATE
A stone similar to sandstone but the rock particles are rounded or angular gravel rather than sand; an aggregate of rounded and water-worn pebbles and boulders cemented together into a coherent stone
CONSOLIDATION
Treatment of the stone surface with a liquid solution which is commonly brush or spray applied. Various stone consolidation processes can extend the life of stone and retard the decay process, but they cannot permanently arrest deterioration
CONTOUR SCALING
A crust forming across the surface of sandstones and limestones which follows the contour of the surface rather than the bedding planes of the stones. The result of direct pollution. The pores of the stone are blocked by formations of recrystallized calcium sulfates
CONTROL JOINT
A joint that allows for dimensional changes of different parts of a structure due to shrinkage, expansion, variations in temperature, or other causes. Its purpose is to prevent development of high stresses in the structure
COPE STONE
The horizontal top stone of a wall or similar stone construction, usually flat
COPING
A cap or covering course on top of masonry wall. Designed to shed water, protect the top and provide a finished, closed appearance to the wall. Commonly extended beyond the wall face and incorporating a drip.SEC: Single edge coping.DEC: Double edge coping
COQUINA
Limestone composed predominately of shells or fragments of shells loosely cemented by calcite. Coquina is course-textured and has a high porosity. The term is applied principally to a very porous rock quarried in Florida
CORAL LIMESTONE
A limestone consisting of the calcareous skeletons of corals, often containing fragments of other organisms and usually cemented by calcium carbonate
CORNERSTONE
A stone forming a part of a corner or angle in a wall. Also a stone laid at the formal inauguration of the erection of a building
CORNICE
A molded projecting stone at the top of an entablature or facade
CORROSION RESISTANT
items which have been treated or coated to retard harmful oxidation or other corrosive action
COURSE
A continuous horizontal band of stone of constant height
COURSED VENEER
This is achieved by using stones of the same or approximately the same heights. Horizontal joints run on the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are constantly broken so that no two joints will be over one another
COUSSINET
French for the stone at the top of a pier supporting the lowest stone of an arch
COVE BASE
A concave stone mold
COVE JOINT
A concave joint shaped with a tool
CRACK
A break, split, fracture, fissure, separation, cleavage, or elongated narrow opening, however caused, visible without magnification to the human eye and extending from the surface into the stone, through the gra in, matrix, or vein
CRAMP
A U shaped metal anchor for holding two adjacent units of stone together
CRANDALL
A multi-pointed hammer for dressing the face of stone
CRATERING
Depression in a coating film usually caused by air or solvent trapped in the coating, forming bubbles which break after the film has set sufficiently to prevent leveling
CROSSETTE
(Croissette, Crosset) A side lug at the upper side of an arch stone, entering a corresponding space on the adjoining stone
DAB
To dress the face of a stone by picking with a pointed tool
DACITE
Fine-grained extrusive (volcanic) rock, intermediate in color and composition between basalt and rhyolite
DADO
Stone treatment on interior walls which does not extend to the ceiling often ornamented
DAMP COURSE
A course or layer of impervious material which prevents vertical penetration of water by capillary action
DAMP PROOFING
Prevention of moisture penetration due to capillary action by the addition of one or more coatings of a compound that is impervious to water
DAMP PROOFING COURSE
A horizontal or vertical course or layer, usually at least six inches above the ground level, that prevents the capillary entrance of moisture from the ground or a lower course
DEFLECTION
The amount by which a horizontal member bends at the center under stress
DELAMINATION
A failure in a laminating assembly characterized by the separation or loss of adhesion between plies, such as in built-up roofing or glue-laminated timber
DEPTH OF GLOSS
The optical phenomenon of relative depth perceived when viewing reflective surfaces
DESIGN
To bring into being a mental concept
DIABASE
A granular igneous rock, dark gray to black, sometimes called dolerite
DIE
A covering layer of interior stone from wall to ceiling
DIMENSIONAL STONE
Stone that has been cut into geometric forms for ornamental or structural purposes. Natural building stone that has been selected, trimmed, or cut to specified shapes and sizes. Final surface treatment or finish is as specified
DIORITE
Granular, crystallized igneous stone composed of feldspar and hornblende
DOLOMITE
Calcium Magnesium Carbonate [CaMg(CO3)2] A calcium magnesium carbonate; a crystalline variety of limestone, containing in excess of 40 percent of magnesium carbonate as the dolomite molecule. Main mineral composing dolomitic limestones and marbles. Dolomite rocks are also referred to as dolostone
DOLOMITE MARBLE
A crystalline variety of limestone, containing in excess of 49% of magnesium carbonate as the dolomite molecule
DOLOMITIC LIMESTONE
A limestone rich in magnesium carbonate, frequently somewhat crystalline in character. It is found in ledge formations in a wide variety of color tones and textures. Generally speaking, its crushing andmestone
DOLOSTONE
A dolomitic limestone
DOVETAIL ANCHOR
splayed tenon that is shaped like a dove’s tail, broader at its end than at its base, which fits into the recess of a corresponding mortise
DOVETAIL MOLDING
A molding in which interlocked triangles are used
DRESSED/HAND DRESSED
The cutting of rough chunks of stone by hand to create a square or rectangular shape. A stone which is sold as dressed stone generally refers to stone ready for installation
DRESSING
The shaping and squaring, sometimes called scabbling, of blocks for storage and shipment
DRIP
A recess cut into the underside of projecting stone to divert water and prevent it from running down the face of a wall or other surface of which it is a part
DRIP MOLD
A molding shaped for drip
DROVE
A mason’s blunt chisel for facing stone
DRY PACK
A type of mud bed with a lesser concentration of Portland cement, which is popular for certain stone floor installations (eg in the case of “grind-in-place” installations of marble and granite floors.)
DRY SEAM
Unhealed fracture which may be a plane of weakness
DUAL FINISH
Dry wall is a stone that is constructed one stone upon the other without the use of any mortar. Generally used for retaining walls
DURABILITY
The measure of the ability of dimension stone to endure and to maintain its essential and distinctive characteristics of strength, resistance to decay and moisture, and appearance
DUTCHMAN
A small, matching piece of dimension stone that is cut, finished and attached with the tightest possible joint to a floor, wall, top, or other larger piece of stone to increase its length or width or to repair or replace a missing or damaged area. Dutchmen are usually affixed in the fabrication shop with epoxy or polyester resin
EFFLORESCENCE
A deposit or encrustation of soluble salts generally white, usually carbonates or sulfates, that may form on the surface of stone, brick, concrete or mortar when moisture moves through and evaporates from the masonry
EGGSHELL FINISH
Dull polish or matt surface
EIGHT-CUT FINISH
Fine, bush-hammered; interrupted parallel markings not over 3/32 in. apart; a corrugated finish; smoother near arris lines and on small surfaces
EMULSION
Mixture of solid particles of binder and the liquid carrier in which they are suspended but insoluble
ENCRINAL MARBLE
Marble deriving decoration from fossils or shells
ENDOLITHIC
The process of adding color to incised lettering in stone
ENGINEERED STONE
A manmade product composed of a blend of natural minerals and manmade agents (such as polyester, glass, epoxy, and other such ingredients). This product can give the appearance of a “stone like” surface, but it does not possess the characteristics of a natural stone. It’s range of use is limited
ENTABLATURE
A horizontal, projecting group of stones immediately above a column capital. Consists of three major parts: architrave, cornice, and frieze
ENTASIS
The curve resulting from the gradual diminishing in the diameter of the upper two-thirds of a column
EPOXY
A class of synthetic, thermosetting resins which produce tough, hard, chemical resistant coating and excellent adhesives
EPOXY RESIN
A flexible, usually thermal setting resin made by polymerization of an epoxide and used as an adhesive. They are characterized by toughness, good adhesion, corrosion, chemical resistance, and good dielectric properties. Most epoxy resins are the two-part type, which harden when blended. It is used as surface coatings, adhesives for composites and for metals, floor surfacing and wall panels, cements and mortars
ERECTION
The process of and setting vertical dimensional stone in place
ETCHING
Occurs when stone is eaten (or neutralized) by an acid. It often looks like and is mistaken for a watermark.
EXFOLIATION
Peeling, swelling or scaling of stone or mineral surfaces in thin layers, caused by chemical or physical weather or by heat
EXPANSION
Enlargement of length and bulk by reason of temperature rise or absorption of water
EXPOSED AGGREGATE
Phrase applied to the larger pieces of stone aggregate purposefully exposed for their color and texture in a cast slab. Can be done by casting on a slab or by application to an existing wall over epoxy or cement coat
FABRICATION
The work involved in transforming building stone from quarry blocks to cut or finished stone. This includes primary sawing into slabs. It may also include both hand and mechanical techniques such as sawing, drilling, grinding, honing, polishing, and carving
FACE
Refers to the exposed surface of stone on the structure. Or, a horizontal belt of vertical face, often used in combination with moldings
FACIES, METAMORPHIC
A set of temperature and pressure conditions under which a group of metamorphic rocks is formed from pre-existing rocks (of any possible type)
FACTOR OF SAFETY
The factor by which the expected weight or stress is multiplied to indicate the surplus of strength or resistance provided for safety sake
FACTORY-FINISH INSTALLATION
Installation of a floor or wall executed with factory-finished stone tiles or factory-finished cuts of slabs. Antonym: grind-in-place installation
FALSE JOINT
A groove routed in a solid piece of stone to simulate a joint
FASCIA
A horizontal band of vertical face, often used in combinations with moldings
FAT MORTAR
Mortar containing a high percentage of cement components. It is a sticky mortar that adheres to a trowel
FAULT
A dislocation of stone strata which may interfere with natural underground drainage, or a break in the layers or bedding plane
FEATHER EDGE
A sharp arris formed by beveling or cutting a piece of stone
FELDSPAR
Any group of crystalline minerals, all silicates of aluminum with either, potassium, sodium, calcium or barium. An essential constituent of nearly all crystalline rocks
FERRUNGINOUS
Limestone or quartz-based stone (sandstone) containing a high proportion of iron oxide
FIELD STONE
Loose blocks separated from ledges by natural processes and scattered through or upon the ground cover; applied also to similar transported materials, such as glacial boulders and cobblestones
FIELDSTONE
A weathered stone found on top of the ground
FILLER STRIP
Refers to a resilient material placed in the rear portion of a joint to function as a sealant stop
FILLET
Rebate, often used as a decorative feature with moldings
FILLING
A trade expression used in the fabrication of marble to indicate the filling of natural voids with color-blended cements, shellac or synthetic resins and similar materials
FINES
The powder, dual, silt-size, and sand-size material resulting from processing (usually crush tog) rock
FINISH
Final surface applied to the face of dimensional stone during fabrication
FIREPLACE
An opening on a hearth, served by a chimney flue, where an open fire may be laid
FIREPROOFING
Any material or combination protecting structural members and increasing their fire resistance
FIXING
A term used in Europe to describe the installation of stone work
FLAGSTONE
Thin slabs of stone used for flagging or paving walks, driveways, patios, etc. It is generally a fine-grained sandstone, bluestone, quartzite, or slate, but thin slabs of other stones may be used
FLAMED FINISH
A very rugged surface finish of certain stones (mostly mercantile granites) produced by popping the crystals on the surface of the slab or tile with a potent blow-torch. See Thermal Finish
FLASHING
Manufacturing process to produce specific color tones in clay units by creating a reducing atmosphere in the kiln. Or, a thin impervious material placed in mortar joints and through air spaces in masonry to prevent water penetration and provide water drainage. Also, metal or other protective material used to cover joints, tops of walls, parapet walls, or angles, as of a roof
FLEURI
The mottled effect obtained when certain marble varieties are sawn parallel to their natural bedding plane
FLEURI CUT
Unique to the marble industry, it is cut parallel to the natural bedding plane
FLINT
Dense, fine-grained, naturally occurring form of silica that fractures conchoidally
FLOAT
A mason’s tool, a flat board with handle on one side, used for spreading and smoothing plaster or cement
FLOAT COAT
The final mortar coat applied with a float over which the neat coat is applied
FLOORING
Stone used as an interior pedestrian walking surface
FLUTED
Stone having a regular series of concave grooves
FLUTING
Shallow, concave, parallel grooves running vertically on the shaft of a column, pilaster, or other surface
FOUR-CORNER FINISH
Coarse bush-hammered finish with same characteristics as 6-cut, but with markings not more than 7/32 in. apart
FOUR-MAN BOULDERS
Rough stones less than 750 pounds
FOYER
A subordinate space between an entrance and the main interior to which it leads
FREESTONE
A stone that may be cut freely in any direction without fracture or splitting
FRIEZE
Flat member of the entablature occurring above the architrave and below the cornice
FROG
A depression in the bed surface of a brick, sometimes called a panel
FRONT
The more important face of a building, or that containing its main entrance
FULL MORTAR BEDDING
Mortar applied to the entire thickness of a masonry unit
FURRING
The method of finishing the interior face of masonry wall to provide space for insulation, to prevent moisture transmittance, or to provide a smooth or plane surface for finishing
GABBRO
An igneous granular stone composed chiefly of pyroxene, augite or diallage, and plagioclase
GABLE
The exterior triangular section of a wall extending upward from the level of the eaves to the apex. Also, a member resembling the triangular end of a roof
GALLET
A stone chip or spall
GANG SAW
A machine with multiple blades used to saw rough quarry block into slabs. Also known as a frame saw
GANG SAWED
Description of the granular surface of stone resulting from gang sawing alone
GANTRY SAW
A usually single diamond blade saw with a mobile rail and blade that can be repositioned along its tracks between cuts
GARRETING
The insertion of small splinters of stone in the mortar joints before the mortar has firmly set
GAUGED
(Gauging) A grinding process to make all pieces of material to be used together the same thickness
GLASS SEAM
Description of a narrow glass-like streak occurring in stone. It is a joint plane that has been re-cemented by deposition of translucent crystalline calcite in the crack and is usually structurally sound
GLOSS
Luster or shininess, measured as light reflectance
GNIESS
A metamorphic rock with a banded or coarsely foliated structure, often called ’Trade Granite’. Composed essentially of silicate minerals with interlocking and visibly granular texture in which the foliation is due primarily to alternating layers, regular or irregular, of contrasting mineralogical composition
GRADE COURSE
Beginning course at the grade level, generally waterproofed with a damp check or damp course
GRAIN
The easiest cleavage direction in a stone. Also the particles (crystals, sand grain, etc.) in a stone
GRANITE
A very hard, crystalline, igneous rock, gray to pink in color, composed of feldspar, quartz, and lesser amounts of dark Ferro magnesium materials. Black ’granites’ are similar to true ’granites’ in structure and texture, but are composed of different minerals
GRANULAR
Stones having a texture characterized by particles that are apparent to the unaided eye. For sedimentary rocks: particles less than 4 inches in diameter and approximately equal in size
GRAVEL
Composed chiefly of quartz, but may contain granite, limestone, basalt, and other rocks
GREEN MORTAR
Mortar that has set but not dried
GREENSTONE
Includes stones that have been metamorphosed or otherwise altered that they have assumed a distinctive greenish color owing to the presence of one or more of the following minerals: chlorite, epidote, or actinolite
GREYWACKE
A grainy conglomerate stone composed of firmly cemented fragments of quartz
GRIND-IN-PLACE INSTALLATION
Method of installation of stone floors by which all components (tiles or cuts of stone) are set on “mud” and then ground and finished in the premises
GROG
Crushed brick that is blended with clay to form new brick
GROUT
A mixture of cement material and aggregate to which sufficient water is added to produce pouring consistency without segregation of the constituents
GROUT CORE MASONRY
Masonry construction made with hollow units in which all or specific cores are filled with grout
GROUT LIFT
The height to which grout is placed in a cell, collar joint or cavity without stopping; an increment of the total grout pour
GROUT POUR
The total height of a masonry wall to be grouted prior to the placement of additional masonry. A grout pour may consist of one or more grout lifts
GROUTED MASONRY
Masonry construction made with solid masonry in which the interior joints and voids are filled with grout
GUIDE SPECIFICATION
A recommended specification for the furnishing and installation of building stone
GYPSUM
A hydrated calcium sulfate. It is formed naturally as the result of the reaction of sulfuric acid produced by decomposition of pyrite upon the calcium carbonate of shells existing in clay; a sedimentary rock
HAIRLINE CRACKING
Random pattern of superficial cracking in an exposed concrete surface. Usually surface openings of 20 mils or less
HALF BULLNOSE
A convex semicircular molding used on exposed edges or stone units such as countertops, stair treads, and window stools
HALF ROUND
An exposed edge or molding with a semi-circular section or radii
HALITE
Rock salt; sodium chloride; a sedimentary rock
HAND CUT RANDOM RECTANGULAR
A pattern where all the stone is hand cut into squares and rectangles; joints are fairly consistent. Similar to sawed-bed ashlar in appearance
HARD-BURNED
Nearly vitrified clay products that have been fired at high temperatures
HARDNESS
See Mohs Scale
HEAD
The end of a stone which has been tooled to match the face of the stone. Heads are used at outside corners, windows, door jams, or any place where the veneering will be visible from the side
HEAD JOINT
The vertical mortar joint between ends of masonry units. Also called a cross-joint or a vertical joint
HEADER
A masonry unit that overlaps two or more adjacent wythes of masonry to tie them together. Also called a bonder
HEADSTONE
A principle stone, as in keystone or cornerstone
HEARTH
That part of the floor of a room made of stone on which the fire is made or above is a stove, fireplace, furnace, etc.
HEMIHYDRATE
A hydrate which contains one-half of a molecule of water compared to one molecule of the principal element or compound forming the hydrate
HERRINGBONE
A pattern of setting in which the units are laid aslant, with the direction of incline reversing in alternate courses, forming a zigzag effect
HEWN STONE
To rough form by mallet and chisel
HIGH-STRENGTH ADHESIVE
A bonding agent of high ultimate strength used to join individual pieces of stone into pre-assembled units
HONE FINISH
A satin-smooth surface finish with little or no light reflection. Generally, a honed finish is preferred for floors or where traffic may wear off a high polish finish. It is also used on furniture tops and other surfaces. For the stones that cannot be polished, it is the only smooth finish possible
HONES/HONE FINISH
A very fine, satin smooth finish on stone. This is the last step before polishing. A super fine smooth finish with little or no gloss. Recommended for commercial floors
HORNEBLEND
A group of minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and aluminum silicates. May be present in igneous stones
HYDRATE
A mineral formed by the combination of water and some other elements or compounds
HYDRATED LIME
Quicklime to which sufficient water has been added to convert the oxides to hydroxides
HYDRAULIC
To harden under (or with) water
HYDROPHILIC
Substance which absorbs or has exhibited affinity for water
HYDROPHOBIC
Having no affinity for or is repellent to water. The quality of beading water on a substrate
IGNEOUS ROCK
One of three principle groups of rock that make up the earth’s surface. Formed by the solidification of molten matter
IMPORT BROKER
One who acts as an independent sales representative in the United States, its territories and Canada for foreign suppliers
IMPORTER
One who purchases, stocks, and distributes foreign materials in the United States, its territories and Canada, in substantial quantities and reliable quality
IMPREGNATION
Applying a chemical containing stain inhibitors that penetrates below the surface of the stone
IMPREGNATOR
Impregnating sealer; a chemical product made of two parts: a resin (solid) and a carrier (water or mineral solvent) to penetrate the surface of a stone to reduce the natural absorbency rate of the stones it is applied to, providing that the stone’s surface tension allows the product to be absorbed by it
INCISE
To cut inwardly or engrave, as in an inscription
INDENTING
Omission of some stones to allow for future bonding-in work
INLAY
Surface decoration achieved by the insertion of lines or patterns of contrasting material
JOINT
The space between installed units or between dimensional stones and the adjoining material
JOINT REINFORCEMENT
Steel reinforcement placed in or on mortar bed joints
JOINTING
The finishing of joints between courses of masonry units before the mortar has hardened
JOINTING SCHEME
Architectural drawing detailing dimensions, location and configuration of stone units and joints related to the structure
JUMPER
In ashlar patterns, a piece of stone of higher rise than adjacent stones which is used to end a horizontal mortar joint at the point where it is set
KAOLINITE
A hydrous aluminum silicate mineral
KERF
A slot into the edge of stone with saw blade for insertion of anchors
KEY BLOCK
In deepening a quarry, or starting to quarry downward from a horizontal surface, the first block removed from a new ledge, providing space and access for further block removal by undercutting, under drilling, or lateral shifting
KEYSTONE
The last wedge-shaped stone placed in the crown of an arch regarded as binding the whole
KILN
A furnace, oven, or heated enclosure used for burning or firing brick or clay material
KILN RUN
Brick from one kiln that have not yet been sorted or graded for size or color variation
KING CLOSURE
A brick cut diagonally to have one two-inch end and one full width end
KNEELER
Gabled cope stone which by its shape is also part of the wall, and may support other cope stones
LAMINATION
The gluing of two pieces of stone together to produce an edge that can be shaped to create an aesthetic appearance for countertops
LAP
To overlap one surface with another
LATERAL SUPPORT
Method whereby walls or columns are braced in the vertical span by beams, floors or roofs, or walls in the horizontal span by columns, pilasters, buttresses or cross walls
LATEX ADHESIVE
Rubber or resins in water which coalesce to form a continuous film that imparts specific properties to Portland cement products
LAVA
A general term applied to igneous rocks such as basalt and rhyolite that erupted from the earth by volcanic action
LEAN MORTAR
Mortar that is deficient in cement components. It is usually harsh and difficult to spread
LEGS
Vertical dimension stone used on sides of a fireplace opening
LEWIS BOLT
A tapered head device wedged into a tapered recess in the edge of a dimensional stone unit, used for lifting purposes and hanging soffits
LEWIS HOLES
Holes in cut stones for lifting and supporting during setting of cut stones and sometimes for permanent support. Holes are checked for the particular Lewis (lifting device or hook) to be used
LIME HYDRATED
Carbon hydroxide or slaked lime that has been reduced to dry powder
LIME PUTTY
Hydrated lime on plastic form ready for addition to mortar
LIME-HYDRAULIC
Containing compounds which cause a chemical set in reaction with water
LIMESTONE
Sedimentary rock originated mostly by the decomposition of marine organism composed primarily of calcite or dolomite. The varieties of limestone used as dimension stone are usually well consolidated and exhibit a minimum of graining or bedding direction
LINE PIN
A metal pin used to attach line used for alignment of masonry units
LINERS
Structurally sound sections of stone that are cemented and dowelled to the back of stone wall units, to give greater strength, additional bearing surface, assist in support, or to increase joint depth
LINTEL
A beam placed or constructed over an opening in a wall to carry the superimposed load
LIPPAGE
A condition where one edge of a stone tile is higher than adjacent edges, making the overall surface not truly flat but rather giving it a ragged appearance. Acceptable lippage for stone tiles is not more than 1/32 of an inch - about the thickness of a credit card.
LIPPING
Usually refers to flagging materials. Lipping is caused when two pieces of material to be joined together are slightly warped or twisted causing one or more edges to be higher or lower than the adjoining material
LOAD BEARING
A structural system or element designed to carry loads in addition to its own dead load
LUG
A small projecting member of a larger stone piece, to engage an adjoining unit or to serve as an aid in handling
LUG SILL
Stone sill set into the jambs on each side of masonry opening
MACHINE FINISH
The generally recognized standard machine finish produced by the planers
MALPAIS
Literally, badland; refers to dark-colored rock, commonly lava, in rough terrain
MANTEL
The structural member spanning the opening of a fireplace. Also, a shelf (usually cubic stone) which is part of the finish and above the fireplace opening
MANUFACTURED
Dimensional stone fabricated, ready for installation
MANUFACTURER
One who fabricates dimensional stone
MARBLE
A metamorphic crystalline rock composed predominantly of crystalline grains of calcite, dolomite, or serpentine, and capable of taking a polish
METAMORPHIC ROCK
Rock altered in appearance, density, crystalline structure, and in some cases, mineral composition, by high temperature or intense pressure, or both. Includes slate derived from shale, quartz-based stone from quartzitic sand, and true marble from limestone
MICROFIBER
A special type of fabric or fabrics treated in a way by which the single filaments must be less than 1 “Denier”. (’Denier’ is the term used to define the diameter or fineness of a continuous or filament fiber.) For instance, fine silk is 1.25 denier. Microfiber fabrics are usually between 0.5 and 0.6 denier
MOHS SCALE
In 1812 the Mohs scale of mineral hardness was devised by the German mineralogist Frederich Mohs (1773-1839), who selected the ten minerals because they were common or readily available. The scale is not a linear scale, but somewhat arbitrary. An item with a higher Mohs value can scratch an item with a lower Mohs value. A lower rated item cannot scratch a higher rated one: 1. Talc; 2. Gypsum; 3. Calcite (Most Marbles); 4. Fluorite; 5. Apatite; 6. Feldspar (Granite); 7. Quartz (Granite); 8. Topaz; 9. Corundum; 10. Diamond. Countertops with a 7+ are considered excellent, a 6 good, a 5 poor (because knives can scratch) and a 4 or below unadvisable. When sediment and grit are harder than the surface, they will scratch and harm the stone. "/> NATURAL BED
The setting of the stone on the same plane as it was formed in the ground. This generally applies to all stratified materials
NATURAL CEMENT
Lime with high clay content
NATURAL CLEFT
This generally pertains to stones which are formed in layers in the ground. When such stones are elevated or separated along a natural seam, the remaining surface is referred to a natural cleft surface. Non-manmade finish of stone with foliation, such as slate, certain sandstones and schistose rocks. The finish is obtained by de-lamination of the layers of the stone along its foliation
NATURAL STONE
Although technically a redundancy, as stone is naturally occuring by definition, the term is used to distinguish true stone from imitation materials.
NEAT CEMENT
A pure cement uncut by a sand admixture. Obtained by planning the stone with a planer tool in which irregular nicks have been made in the cutting edgeObtained by planning the stone with a planer tool in which irregular nicks have been made in the cutting edge
NEGATIVE LIP
When a factory-finished tile (or whatever different cut of stone) is installed lower in relation of at least three other surrounding tiles
NOMINAL DIMENSION
A dimension greater than a specified masonry dimension by the thickness of a mortar joint
NON-COMBUSTABLE
Any material that will neither ignite nor actively support combustion in air at a temperature of 1.200’F when exposed to fire
NON-CORRODING
Resistant to harmful oxidation or other corrosive actions because of its composition (i.e. stainless steel, bronze, copper)
NON-FERROUS
Not containing iron material
NON-STAINING MORTAR
A mortar with a low free-alkali content to avoid efflorescent or staining by adjacent stones migration of soluble materials
NOSING
The rounded front edges of a stair tread
OBSIDIAN
A glassy phase of lava, usually black
OFF FALL
A remnant, or extra piece, from a partially cut slab. Off falls are often used for samples or additional projects
OFFSET
A course or unit that is set in from the course directly under it, the opposite of a projection
OGEE
A stone molding with a reverse curved edge, concave above, convex below
ONE-MAN BOULDERS
Rough stone under 150 pounds
ONYX
A variety of quartz in crystalline form of calcium carbonate. It is characterized by a structure of parallel brands each differing in color or in the degree of translucency
ONYX MARBLE
A crystalline from, commonly microcrystalline, of calcium carbonate deposited usually from cold water solutions. It is generally translucent and shows characteristic layering. Commercially, onyx is considered a marble because it can be polished
OOLITIC LIMESTONE
Rock consisting mainly of calcite, made up of largely oolites or granular particles (generally tiny fossils or fossil fragments) that have calcium coatings. A calcite-cemented calcareous stone formed of shells and shell fragments, practically non-crystalline in character it is found in massive deposits located almost entirely in Lawrence, Monroe, and Owen counties in Indiana, also in Alabama, Kansas, and Texas. This limestone is characteristically a freestone, without cleavage planes, possessing a remarkable uniformity of composition, texture and structure. It also possesses a high internal elasticity, adapting itself without damage to extreme temperature changes
OPALIZED
The introduction into a rock of siliceous material in the form of opal, a hydrous silicate
OPHICALCITE
Sedimentary rock mostly made of serpentine, gabbro, often with red alteration from formation of hematite. Binding agents can be calcite, dolomite, magnesite
ORGANIC
Designation of any chemical compound containing carbon (some of the simple compounds of carbon, such as carbon dioxide, are frequently classified as inorganic compounds). To date, nearly one million organic compounds have been synthesized or isolated. Many occur in nature; others are produced by chemical synthesis
OUT-CROP
Rock protruding above or at ground level
OUT-OF-WIND
Generally refers to veneer stone. To be out of wind is to have the arris of the stone not in parallel or perpendicular lines; stone which is out of wind has an irregular or rustic appearance
OVER BURDEN
Waste stone, earth or other quarry material covering useful stone
PALLETIZED
A system of stacking stone on wooden pallets for shipment or storage. Stone which comes palletized is easily moved and transported by modern handling equipment. Palletized stone generally arrives at the site in better condition then non-palletized material
PANEL
A single unit of fabricated stone veneer
PARGING
Damp proofing by applying a coat of mortar to the back of the stone units or to the face of the back-up material
PARQUETRY
Inlay of stone floors in geometrical or other patterns consisting of two or more colors or materials
PATCH
Repair compound used to fill natural voids or to replace chips and broken corners or edges in fabricated pieces of dimension stone. Mixed or selected to match the stone in color and texture
PATINA
The color and texture added to a surface by time and various allies
PAVER
A single unit of fabricated stone for use as an exterior paving material
PEDESTAL
A stone supporting structure or piece for a bust, column, statue, or vase
PERMEABILITY
The property of a substance which permits passage of water vapor; moisture vapor transmission
PERPENDER
A stone extending through the thickness of a wall and finished on both ends
PERRONS
Slabs of stone set on other stones serving as stops and arches in gardens
PETROGLYPHY
Primitive stone carving
PHENOCYRST
In igneous rocks, the relatively large and conspicuous crystals in a finer-grain matrix or ground mass. A number denoting the degree of acidity or alkalinity; 7 is a neutral value. Acidity increases with decreasing values below 7, while alkalinity increases with increasing values above 7
PHENOL
A class of acid organic compounds used in the manufacture of epoxy resins, phenol formaldehyde resins, plasticizers, plastics and wood preservatives
PICKED
Stone dressed using mason’s point
PIER
Solid stone support, smaller than and distinct from a column
PILASTER
Engaged pier of shallow depth. In classical architecture it follows the height and width of related columns with similar base sod cap. In classical architecture, it follows the height and width of related columns, with similar base and cap
PISCINA
In ecclesiastical architecture, a basin of stone or marble in which the challice is washed after the rite of the Eucharist
PITCHED
Surface resembling rock-faced produced with pitching tool
PITCHED STONE
Stone having arris clearly defined, face however is roughly cut with pitching chisel used along the line which becomes the arris
PLANER
Machine for planing moldings on to stone; machine used to reduce thickness and gauge stone; machine used to produce a machine finish on limestone
PLATE TRACERY
Tracery designs, usually simple and geometrical, cut through a thin slab of stone, as distinguished from a tracery proper, which is formed by mortared sections of molding
PLINTHS
The lower square part of the base of a column. A square base or a lower block, as in a pedestal. The base blocks at the juncture of base-board and trim around an opening
PLUCKED FINISH
Obtained by rough planning the surface of stone, braking or plucking out small particles to give rough texture
PLUG AND FEATHERS
Tools used for splitting stone blocks
PLUMB BOMB
A shaped metal weight that is suspended from the lower end of a line to determine the vertical trueness
PLUMB RULE
A narrow board with parallel edges having a straight line drawn through the middle and a string attached at the upper end of the line for determining a vertical plane
POINT
Chisel drawn nearly to a point
POINT FINISH
A rough, tooled surface
POINTING
The final filling and finishing of mortar joints that have been raked out
POLISHED
The finest and smoothest finish available in stone, generally only possible on hard, dense materials. Or, a glossy finish which brings out the full color and character of the stone
POLYESTER RESIN
A flexible, usually thermal setting resin formed by a polymerization process using a small amount of accelerator compound and used as an adhesive or to repair or fill certain stones
POLYETHYLENE FILM
Plastic film sheet used for curing or as a cleavage or isolation membrane
POROSITY
Ratio of pore space to the total volume of material expressed as a percent
PORPHYRY
Igneous rock characterized by distinct and contrasting sizes of course and fine grained crystals. Used as a decorative building stone
PORTLAND CEMENT
A hydraulic cement product obtained by pulverizing and calcimining a properly proportioned mixture of three minerals: lime, silica, and alumina
POSITIVE LIP
When a factory-finished tile (or whatever different cut of stone) is installed higher in relation of at least three other surrounding tiles
POULTICING
Method of drawing soluble salts or stains out of stone by applying an absorbent such as clay or diatomaceous earth mixed to a paste with water or cleaning solvent
PRE-CAST
Having received its final form before introduction into a structure, as in pre-cast concrete slabs
PREASSEMBLED UNITS
Two or more stones combined into a single unit by use of epoxy resins, steel framing or concrete backing
PRESSURE RELIEVING JOINT
An open horizontal joint below the supporting angle or hanger located at approximately every floor line and not over 15 ft. apart horizontally, and every 20-30 ft. vertically, to prevent the weight from being transmitted to the masonry below. These joints are to be caulked with a resilient non-staining material to prevent moisture penetration
PRODUCER
One who quarries stone
PROFILE
The outline of the exposed face of a cross section
PROFILE MACHINE
Machine for cutting moldings on to stone
PROJECTIONS
Refers to the pulling out of stones in a veneered wall to give an effect of ruggedness. The amount each stone is pulled out can vary between ¼ inch and 1½ inches. Stones are either pulled out at the same degree at both ends or sometimes one end is pulled out leaving the other flush with the majority of veneer
PYRITE
The natural sulfides of certain metals. The most common is iron pyrite, which is iron disulfide, a brittle mineral that is brassy yellow in color with greenish-black streaks
QUARRIED STONE
Stone that has been extracted from the earth by means of man power and machines
QUARRIER
One who extracts natural stone from a quarry
QUARRY
The location of an operation where a natural deposit of stone is removed from the ground
QUARRY BLOCK
Generally a rectangular piece of rough stone as it comes from the quarry, frequently scabbed (dressed) or wire-sawed for shipment
QUARRY RUN
In building stone, unselected materials within the ranges of color and texture available from the quarry that is the source
QUARRY SAP
Natural moisture in stone deposits and freshly quarried stone
QUARTER ROUND
A molding having a profile of one-quarter of a circle
QUARTZ
Silicon dioxide occurring in colorless and transparent or colored hexagonal crystals and also in crystalline masses. One of the most common minerals, the chief constituent of quartz-based stone and granite
QUARTZ-BASED STONE
A stone that may be either sedimentary in formation (as in sandstone) or metamorphic (as in quartzite)
QUARTZATIC SANDSTONE
A metamorphic sandstone consisting of quartz grains cemented with silica, but not as hard as quartzite. Geologically, it is an intermediate rock between sandstone and quartzite
QUARTZITE
A compact granular rock composed of quartz crystals, usually so firmly cemented as to make the mass homogeneous. The stone is generally quarried in stratified layers, the surfaces of which are unusually smooth, and the crushing and tensile strength are extremely high. The color range is wide. Or, a silver-gray, metamorphic sandstone formed in exceedingly hard layers. In some deposits, intrusion of minerals during the formation process created unusual shades of brown and gold
QUEEN CLOSURE
A cut brick having a nominal two-inch horizontal face dimension
QUICKLIME
Calcium oxide which is crushed limestone that has been calcined
QUIONS
Stones at the corner of a wall emphasized by size, projection, rustication, or by a different finish
RABBETT
A groove cut into the surface along an edge so as to receive another piece similarly cut
RACKING
Stepping back successive courses of masonry
RAKE
An angular cut on the face of stone
RANDOM
A stone pattern where joints are web-like
RANDOM ASHLAR
Masonry of square or rectangular stones with neither vertical nor horizontal joints continuous and installed without patterns
RANDOM MASONRY
That in which the course heights vary in size
RANGE
A course of any thickness that is continued across the entire face. All range courses need not be of the same thickness
RANGE OF COLOR
The extent of variation of color, shade, markings, texture, veining, and other characteristics of dimension stone, usually defined by using a number of samples or a mock-up
RE-CRYSTALLIZED LIMESTONE
A limestone in which a new pattern of crystalline has pervasively replaced the crystal orientation in the original clastic particles, fossils, or fossil fragments, and interstitial cement
RE-POINTING
Raking out, refilling, and finishing joints with new mortar
REBATED KERF
An additional cut that countersinks a kerf from to the back edge of another piece of stone for the purpose of additional anchor clearance. It is not a gauged cut. If used for a bearing surface, must be shimmed to allow for tolerance in the cut
RECEPTOR
Combined floor and curb used as the bottom of showers
REEDED
Reversed fluted
REGRATING
Removing the surface of stone in place by some dressing method to clean by exposing fresh stone
REINFORCEMENT
A fabrication technique often called ’rodding’. Refers to the strengthening of unsound marble and limestone by cementing aluminum or stainless steel rods into grooves or channels cut into the back of a stone unit. Another method of ’reinforcement’ is the lamination of fiberglass to the back of tile units
RELIEF
Carving or embossing raised above a background plane, as in a bas-relief
RESINING
In relation to the stone trade, a process by which a fluid (epoxy) resin is made to be absorbed by the stone it is applied to in order to fill most natural fissures, nicks and crevices. It appears to also dramatically reduce the natural absorbency rate of the many very porous stone
RESTORATION
Work performed, including cleaning, repair, and finishing, returning the stone to its original character, finish, and condition
RETAINING WALL STONE
Stones which have multiple widths and thicknesses, used as a self-supporting wall with no back-up
RETARDING AGENT
A chemical admixture to mortar or grout that slows setting or hardening
RETEMPURING
To moisten mortar and re-mix after original mixing, to the proper consistency for use
RETUCLITATED WORK
Stone surface hand dressed to show a netlike or vein like raised pattern. Also, a wall built of square pieces set diagonally, with the joints showing a netlike pattern
RETURN
The right angle turns of a wall, molding, or other horizontal projecting member
RETURN HEAD
Stone facing with the finish appearing on both the face and the edge of the same stone; as on the corner of a building
REVEAL
The depth of stone between its outer face and a window or door set in an opening; the reveal is at 90 degrees to the front face
RIFT
The most pronounced direction of splitting or cleavage of a stone. Rift and grain may be obscure, as in some granite, but are important in both quarrying and processing stone
RIPRAP
Irregular shaped stones used for facing bridge abutments and fills; stones thrown together without order to form a foundation, sustain walls, or minimize soil erosion. Also used for rustic stepping stones and patios
RISE
Refers to the heights of stone, generally used in reference to veneer stone
RISING RAMP
Ground water that travels upward through a masonry wall by means of natural capillary action
RIVEN
Split along natural cleavage planes, describes surface finish
ROCK
An integral part of the earth’s crust composed of an aggregate of grains of one or more minerals (‘stone’ is the commercial term applied to quarry products)
ROCK (PITCH) FACE
This is similar to split face, except that the face of the stone is pitched to a given line and plain, producing a bold appearance rather than the comparatively straight face obtained in split face
ROCKED FINISH
An edge that is spalted from both sides, leaving a bubbled appearance
RODDING
Reinforcement of a structurally unsound marble by cementing reinforcing rods into grooves or channels cut into the back of the slab
ROMAN ARCH
Semi-circular arch with all stone pieces being wedge shaped
ROSE WINDOW
A circular stone window fitted with carved tracery
ROUGH BACK
Outside cut-slab, having one side sawed and the other rough, from a block that has been gang sawed
ROUGH SAWN
A surface finish accomplished by the gang sawing process
ROUGHING OUT
A preliminary stone cutting or carving process, removing the bulk of unwanted material
ROWLOCK
A brick laid on its face with the end surface visible in the wall face. Frequently spelled rolock
RUBBED FINISH
Mechanically rubbed for smoother finish; may have slight scratches
RUBBING STONE
Abrasive stone that is used to smooth the edges of stone tile
RUBBLE
A product term applied to dimension stone used for building purposes, chiefly walls and foundations and consisting of irregularly shaped pieces, partly trimmed or squared, generally with one split or finished face, and selected and specified within a site range
RUSTIC
Generally local stone, that is roughly hand dressed, and intentionally laid with high relief in relatively modest structures or rural character. Also, a grade of building limestone, characterized by coarse texture
RUSTICATED
Emphasized joints recessed or beveled which are cut or formed in stonework
RUSTIFICATION
Recessing the margin of cut stone so that when placed together a channel is formed at each joint
SAND BLASTED
A matte-textured surface finish with no gloss, finished by application of pressure
SANDSTONE
Arenaceous sedimentary rock composed mainly of quartz with feldspar as a possible minor component. Sandstones are clastic in origin (opposed to organic or chemical) and the binding agents are mostly calcite, clay and silica. See quartz-based stone
SAWED EDGE
A clean-cut edge generally achieved by cutting with a diamond blade, gang saw, or wire saw
SAWED FINISH
A finish obtained from the process used in producing blocks, slabs, or other units of building stone. It varies in texture from smooth to rough, and is typically named for the type of material used in sawing, e.g. diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn, and shot sawn
SEALING
1. To make a veneer joint watertight with an elastic adhesive compound. 2. Application of a below surface treatment to retard staining
SEDIMENTARY STONES
Rocks formed of sediments laid down in successive strata or layers. The materials of which they are formed are derived from preexisting rocks or the skeletal remains of sea creatures
SERPENTINE
Hydrous Magnesium Iron Phyllosilicate [(Mg, Fe)3 Si2 O5 (OH)4] The main mineral composing most green marbles and ophicalcite. Serpentine-based rocks are called Serpentinite. A hydrous magnesium silicate material; generally dark green in color with markings of white, light green, or black. Considered commercially as a marble because it can be polished
SETTER
An experienced journeyman who installs dimension stone
SHALE
A fine grain sedimentary rock formed by the compaction of clay, silt or mud. It has a finely laminated structure which causes the stone to split readily, especially on weathered surfaces. It is commonly sold as slate though shale is not as hard as slate. It may be red, black, brown or gray
SLATE
Low-grade regional metamorphism of pelitic sediments of shale, mudstone or fine-grained tuff
SOUNDNESS
A property of stone used to describe relative freedom from cracks, faults, voids, and similar imperfections found in untreated stone. One of the characteristics encountered in fabrication
SPALL
A chip or splinter separated from the main mass of a stone
STUNNED CRYSTALS, (MARKS)
Permanent damage occurring on the crystals of true geological marble when subjected to high stress. They appear like whitish, deep marking under the surface of the stone
TCA (Tile Council Of America)
An organization of manufacturers serving the ceramic tile industry. Its programs include promotion of the uses of tile, improvement of product standards and quality, development of new installation methods and techniques, and publication of the annual Installation Handbook. Many of the installation techniques detailed in the handbook can be used to set stone tile
TEMPLATE
A pattern for a repetitive marking or fabricating operation
TERRAZZO
A flooring surface of marble or granite chips in a cementitious or resinous matrix, which is ground and finished after setting
TEXTURE
Surface quality of stone, independent of color
TEXTURED FINISH
A rough surface finish
THERMAL FINISH
A surface treatment applied by intense heat flamin
THIN STONE
Dimension stone units less than 2 inches thick
THRESHOLD
A flat strip of stone projecting above the floor between the jambs of a door. Also known as a saddle
TILE
A thin modular stone, generally less than ¾ inch thick
TOLERANCE
Dimensional allowance in the fabrication process
TRANSLUCENCE
The ability of many lighter-colored marbles to transmit light
TRAVERTINE
A variety of limestone that is a precipitate from hot springs. Some varieties of travertine take a polish and are known commercially as marble. ASTM C119-03 classifies travertine in both the limestone and the marble groupings
TUMBLE FINISH
A rustic finish produced on stone tiles by processing them in a tumbler
TUMBLER
Rotating apparatus used to produce tumble-finish on marble, travertine and other stone tiles
VEIN
A layer, seam, or narrow irregular body of mineral material different from the surrounding formation
VEIN CUT
A cut into quarried stone perpendicular to the natural bedding plane
VENEER
An interior or exterior stone wall covering layer
VITRIFICATION
The condition resulting when kiln temperatures are so high as to fuse grains and close pores of a clay product, making the mass impervious
VOUSSOIR
One of the stones in an arch between the impost and keystone
VUG
A cavity in rock; sometimes lines or filled with either amorphous or crystalline material; common in calcareous rocks such as marble or limestone
WARPED
Generally a condition experienced only in flagging or flagstone materials; very common with flagstone materials that are taken from the ground and used in their natural state. To eliminate warping in stones it would be necessary to further finish the material such as machining, sand rubbing, honing, or polishing
WASH
A sloped area or the area water will run over
WATER BASE
Containing water soluble or water dispersible binders
WATER MARK; WARTER RING
A common misconception that many people have is that these whitish ’stains’ or marks are caused by water. They are actually caused by acid alone or in the water that causes the calcium in the stone to neutralize the acid. This results in a portion of the stone surface actually being dissolved. See also ’Etching’
WATER OF CRYSTALLIZATION
The extra water required to assist in the crystallization process when forming a hydrate (mortar, cement, concrete, plaster, etc…) When the hydrate gives up this excess water, at ambient temperatures, the result is a surface deposit known as efflorescence or staining
WATERPROOFING
A coating used to treat the surface of the substrate, preventing liquid from entering, but allowing water vapor transmission
WAXING
A trade expression used in fabrication of interior marble to describe the process of filling natural voids with cements, shellac, or other materials
WEAR
The artificial removal of material, or impairment of the stone surface finish, through friction or impact
WEDGING
Splitting of stone by driving wedges into planes of weakness
WEEP HOLES
An opening for drainage in veneer joints or in the structural components supporting the veneer
WETTING
The ability of a coating to flow out, spread, or penetrate a substrate
WHEATHERED JOINT
A slope to the outside of the upper part of a joint to shed water
WHEATHERING
Natural alteration by either chemical or mechanical processes due to the action of the atmosphere, surface waters, soil and other ground waters, or to temperature changes. Changes by weathering are not necessarily undesirable or harmful
WHOLESALER
One who purchases dimensional stone in all forms for resale to the trade
WIND (WINED)
A warp in a semi-finished stone slab to be removed by further fabrication
WINDOW SILL
The bottom section of a window frame and/or the bottom section of an exterior masonry window opening
WINDOW STOOL
A narrow shelf fitted across the lower part on the inside of a window opening
WIRE SAW
A sawing device consisting of one or more wire cables, running over pulleys used to cut natural stone into blocks and slabs by tension and fed slurry of an abrasive and water cuts by abrasion
WIRE SAWN
A method of cutting stone by passing a twisted, multi-strand wire over the stone, and immersing the wire in a slurry of abrasive material
WRAP AROUND
The ability of a coating to cover all areas of the substrate to which it is applied, including edges. Also, the effect of an electrostatic charge upon a coating and the ability of the coating to cover all exposed conductive areas